Eg: C2H6 has more boiling point than CH4. All these eliminations are β- eliminations. For example LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), CNG (Liquefied natural gas). This process plays a very important role in the commercial production of diesel fuel and gasoline. Benzene, one of the simplest aromatic hydrocarbons, serves as raw material for the synthesis of many synthetic drugs. Hydrocarbons and Oxides of Carbon: Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide Nomenclature and Preparation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Concepts, Q&A Classification of … Boiling point depends on the following factors: Alkanes having high molecular mass and high boiling points. This class can be further divided into two groups: … Gives more substituted alkene as major products. The ability of hydrocarbons to bond to themselves is known as catenation. As defined by IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry, the classifications for hydrocarbons are: Alkanes with 10 C-atoms or less are generally gases at room temperatures more than 10 C-atoms, the molecules are gases or liquid. Real-World Reading Link If you have ridden in a car or a bus, you have used hydrocarbons. However, today we classify hydrocarbons on the basis of structure and not merely on the origin. For example, Carotenes is an organic pigment which is found in green leaves and carrots. If we look around us these hydrocarbons are widely distributed from fibre to petroleum, Coal to L P G used in daily life solvent in paints, dyes and drugs. H2 gas is passed over a metal surface such as Ni, Pt along with the alkenes to produce alkane. ⇒ Check: Basic Concepts of Organic Chemistry. Open-chain or Aliphatic Compounds; Closed-chain … are all hydrocarbons or their mixture. Hydrocarbon. There are 3 mechanisms suggested for the elimination reactions. The classification was done based on their source and properties. By using this definition, four classes of hydrocarbons are included: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and aromatic. Missed the LibreFest? Important topics - Hydrocarbons (i) Classification of hydrocarbons (ii) Alkanes (iii) Alkenes (iv) Alkynes (v) Aromatic . All addition reactions in alkenes are possible. 4 mins. Introduction to classification of Hydrocarbon: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. Non-Hydrocarbon Components In addition to hydrocarbons, crude oils contain amounts of: Organic non-hydrocarbon, sulfur-, nitrogen-, and oxygen-containing compounds. 744 Chapter 21 • Hydrocarbons Section 221.11.1 Introduction to Hydrocarbons MAIN Idea Hydrocarbons are carbon-containing organic compounds that provide a source of energy and raw materials. These organic compounds find their application in the manufacturing of drugs and dyes as a starting material. Legal. The general term aliphatic hydrocarbon refers to a compound that has a structure based on straight or branched chains or rings of carbon atoms. The chemistry of these compounds is called organic chemistry. Hydrocarbon - Hydrocarbon - Physical properties: The physical properties of alkenes and alkynes are generally similar to those of alkanes or cycloalkanes with equal numbers of carbon atoms. Introduction to Hydrocarbons. This is mainly due to the “self-bonding” or catenation of carbon that prevents the complete saturation of the hydrocarbon by the formation of double or triple bonds. In this following topic we will discuss different types of hydrocarbon. Alkanes generally having low boiling and melting points owing to their weak Vanderwal’s interaction. Density of oil is determined by the length of the hydrocarbons it contains. Discuss the properties of alkanes, alkenes and alkynes and how to differentiate between them. Learn Videos. The important fuels like Petrol, kerosene, coal gas, CNG, LPG etc. Class 11. Aromatic hydrocarbons contain ring structure… Metallic compounds: zinc, titanium, calcium, magnesium, vanadium, copper, nickel, and iron. Classification of Hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons can be classified in the following three categories, on the basis of the bonds present between carbon-carbon atoms. If it contains a great deal of long-chain hydrocarbons, the … NOMENCLATURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROCARBONS Nomenclature of Aliphatic Compounds According to IUPAC system, the name of organic compound, in general consists of the following parts. (hī'drōkär`bən), any organic compound composed solely of the elements hydrogen and carbon. Classification of Hydrocarbons. HYDROCARBONS are the compounds containing carbon and hydrogen only. The hydrocarbons can be divided into various homologous series. CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROCARBONS The term HYDROCARBONS means organic compounds which contain only carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbons are compounds comprised exclusively of carbon and hydrogen and they are by far the dominant components of crude oil, processed petroleum hydrocarbons (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, fuel oil, and lubricating oil), coal tar, creosote, dyestuff, and pyrolysis waste products. Classification of hydrocarbons’ exploration and exploitation projects 4 most profitable and largest ones (in terms of resources) are exploration projects. https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FCourses%2FPurdue%2FPurdue_Chem_26100%253A_Organic_Chemistry_I_(Wenthold)%2FChapter_03%253A_Structure_of_Alkanes%2F3.1_Classification_of_Hydrocarbons, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. The classification was done based on their source and properties. Alkynes contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds. For instance, alkanes, alkynes or alkenes, the amount of bonded hydrogen decreases in alkenes and alkynes. • Saturated Hydrocarbon A hydrocarbon is said to be saturated if it contains only C—C single bonds. The hydrocarbons, which contain atoms linked on the open chain are known as open-chain compounds. Hydrocarbons: Hydrocarbon Classification : Aliphatics: open chains 1. alkanes ("paraffins"): contain only carbon-carbon single bonds (are saturated). For example, CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 has more Boiling point. Plus I will cover some concepts about a derivative of hydrocarbons called Alcohols. Start studying Classifications of Hydrocarbons/ Functional Groups in Hydrocarbons. it also described the types of hydrocarbons. Within the exploration projects, shallow water projects are among the ones with highest profitability and least uncertainty. Due to their different molecular structures, the empirical formula of hydrocarbons is also different from each other. As such, it was found out that Aliphatic hydrocarbons were derived from chemical degradation of fats or oils whereas aromatic hydrocarbons contained substances that were a result of chemical degradation of certain plant extracts. Alkanes are very feebly soluble in water but they are soluble in non-polar solvents such as Benzene, CCl4, etc. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. Chemical Classification: Hydrocarbons (contain hydrogen and carbon atoms) Summary: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of over 100 different chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil and gas, garbage, or other organic substances like tobacco or charbroiled meat. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. … Carbon has the ability to bond with itself to form long chains and, as a result, millions of compounds from simple hydrocarbons to large biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Hydrocarbons are the simplest class of organic compounds and are composed solely of hydrogen and carbon. Terpenes (/ ˈ t ɜːr p iː n /) are a class of natural products consisting of compounds with the formula (C 5 H 8) n.Comprising more than 30,000 compounds, these unsaturated hydrocarbons are produced predominantly by plants, particularly conifers. This measurement reflects how light or heavy a crude oil is compared to water. From Carboxylic acids through Decarboxylation: Most of the reactions involving the preparation of alkenes involve elimination process. Hydrocarbons can feature simple or relatively complex structures and can be generally classified into four subcategories, namely alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aren’t. The reducing agents which can be used are LiAlH4, NaBH4, NaNH2, etc. Depending upon the types of carbon-carbon bonds present, they can be classified into tree main categories: 1) Saturated Hydrocarbon 2) Unsaturated Hydrocarbon 3) Aromatic Hydrocarbon 4. Aromatic compounds derive their names from the fact that many of these compounds in the early days of discovery were grouped because they were oils with fragrant odors. Furthermore, hydrocarbons such as propane and butane are used for commercial fuel purposes in the form of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). Older chemists classified hydrocarbons as either aliphatic or aromatic. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. The above reaction is called as “Sabatier-Sender son’s” reaction. Alkenes are a class of hydrocarbons (e.g, containing only carbon and hydrogen) unsaturated compounds with at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond. Alkenes contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds. Classification of Hydrocarbons The compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen in their molecules are called hydrocarbons. The carbon atoms join together to form the framework of the compound, and the hydrogen atoms attach to them in many different configurations. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Hydrocarbons – organic molecules which consist only of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Older chemists classified hydrocarbons as either aliphatic or aromatic. These hydrocarbons make up to 98% of natural crude rubber. Typically, hydrocarbons are colourless gases that have very weak odours. The study of hydrocarbons can provide insight into the chemical properties of other functional groups and their preparation. Aromatic compounds derive their names from the fact that many of these compounds in the early days of discovery were grouped because they were oils with fragrant odors. Overview. The organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen atoms are known as hydrocarbons. Alkenes are more reactive than alkanes due to the presence of the double bond. The molecular formula for these compounds is CxHy. Benzene generally undergoes electrophilic substitution reactions. Classification of Hydrocarbons There are many types of hydrocarbons, but in IGCSE chemistry we will be dealing with only 2 of them, Alkane and Alkene. More favoured in non-polar, aprotic solvents. However, today we classify hydrocarbons on the basis of structure and not merely on the origin. There are two main classes of hydrocarbons - aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Less substituted alkenes formed as a major product. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that are entirely made up of only two kinds of atoms – carbon and hydrogen. e.g., methane (CH 4), … Hydrocarbons are widely used as fuels. Note: Alkanes with only even number of carbons atoms can be produced. The alkanes can be produced from alkenes or alkynes through hydrogenation. The most common aromatic hydrocarbons are those that contain a benzene ring. They are used in the manufacturing of polymers such as polyethene, polystyrene etc. This is accomplished by supplying an adequate amount of heat and pressure. 3. If the raw petroleum is of a high density then the petroleum classification is termed ‘heavy' and if it is of a low density the petroleum classification is termed 'light'. Study Materials Hydrocarbons are the organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen only, e.g., alkane, alkene and alkynes. The four general classes of hydrocarbons are: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and arenes. Alkanes are saturated, open chain hydrocarbons containing carbon-carbon single bonds. Crude oil's classification as either “light” or “heavy” depends on the oil’s relative density, based on the American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity. The four general classes of hydrocarbons are: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and arenes. Another term used to describe alkenes is olefins. Open chain hydrocarbons are also called aliphatic hydrocarbons or acyclic hydrocarbons. 3. Hydrocarbon, any of a class of organic chemical compounds composed only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). Hydrocarbons are organic compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen. Alkanes having same molecular mass but having a different number of branches, the one with less branching has more boiling point this is because of the Vanderwal’s force weak on as area increases. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Alkynes can be prepared from alkyl halides and alcohols. General formula: C H. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Terpenes are further classified by the number of carbons: monoterpenes (C 10), sesquiterpenes (C 15), diterpenes (C 20), etc. Alkyl halides can be converted to alkanes through various methods. Sometimes catalysts are used to speed up the reaction. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! They are of various type according to their structure. Hydrocarbon Class 11 Formulas & Notes Hydrocarbons are composed of Carbon and hydrogen. The alkanes are saturated hydrocarbonsthat is, hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. All organic compounds are divided into two broad classes based upon the pattern of chain of carbon atoms:. They serve as lubricating oil and grease. General formula: C H. 2. alkenes ("olefins"): contain a single carbon-carbon double bond. For example: Ethane CH3—CH3 • Unsaturated Hydrocarbon • Aromatic Hydrocarbon Benzene and its derivatives are called aromatic compounds. The hydrocarbons differ both in the total number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in their molecules and in the proportion of hydrogen to carbon. Other catalysts which can be used are Pt, Pd-BaSo4, Adams catalyst (Pt2O) or Wilkinson catalyst (R3PRhCl), etc. Classification of Hydrocarbons. Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds. Overview of Hydrocarbons. Have questions or comments? That article is very good and simple for understanding the concept of hydro-carbons. The existence of hydrocarbons is seen in plants and trees. Download hydrocarbons JEE Previous Year Solved Questions PDF. Alkanes. Hydrocarbons are the principal constituents of petroleum and natural gas. Strong, stable bonds between carbon atoms produce complex molecules containing chains, branches, and rings. Meanwhile, cracking of Hydrocarbons is a process in which heavy organic molecules are broken down into lighter molecules. With such capabilities, they can form more complex molecules like cyclohexane and in rare instances aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene. Hydrocarbons. Classification of Hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons Class 11 Notes Chemistry Chapter 13 • Hydrocarbon A compound of carbon and hydrogen is known as hydrocarbon. They are as follow is. 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Of alkenes involve elimination process of resources ) are exploration projects, shallow water projects among... Heavy a crude oil is compared to water LPG ( Liquefied petroleum gas ) drugs and dyes as a material! Of organic chemical compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen methane ( CH 4 ) CNG., and oxygen-containing compounds are exploration projects, shallow water projects are among the ones with highest profitability and uncertainty! Hydrocarbons containing carbon-carbon single bonds or branched chains or rings of carbon and hydrogen bond to themselves is known catenation. Into two categories known as hydrocarbon Ni, Pt along with the alkenes to produce alkane the origin between atoms! With highest profitability and least uncertainty the most common aromatic hydrocarbons are included:,! Different configurations of petroleum and natural gas 98 % of natural crude rubber LPG ) hydrocarbons contains!
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